World Chagas Disease Day: Raising Awareness and Eliminating Stigma

World Chagas Disease Day: Raising Awareness and Eliminating Stigma

On April 14th, World Chagas Disease Day is observed to increase awareness of this neglected tropical disease and the people affected by it. Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted by insects commonly known as “kissing bugs”. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Chagas disease affects around 6-7 million people worldwide, mainly in Latin America where it is endemic, but also in other regions due to migration and travel.


How is Chagas disease transmitted?

Chagas disease is transmitted through the feces of infected triatomine bugs, also known as kissing bugs, which are common in rural areas of Latin America. These bugs bite humans, often around the face or mouth, and then defecate on or near the bite wound. The parasite is then spread when the feces are rubbed into the bite wound or mucous membranes (eyes, mouth, nose).

What are the symptoms of Chagas disease?

Chagas disease has two phases: acute and chronic. The acute phase is usually mild and lasts for a few weeks or months, and may go unnoticed. The chronic phase can last for decades and can cause severe symptoms, including heart failure, digestive problems, and neurological disorders. However, many people with Chagas disease remain asymptomatic for life.

How is Chagas disease diagnosed?

Chagas disease can be diagnosed through a blood test that detects antibodies to T. cruzi. However, the test is not always accurate, especially in the early stages of infection. Other tests, such as PCR or microscopy, can also be used to detect the parasite directly.

How is Chagas disease treated?

Chagas disease can be treated with antiparasitic drugs, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, which are most effective in the acute phase. However, these drugs can have serious side effects and may not be effective in the chronic phase.

How can Chagas disease be prevented?

Chagas disease can be prevented by taking measures to avoid exposure to kissing bugs, such as using insecticide-treated bed nets, sealing cracks and crevices in homes, and applying insecticides to homes and surrounding areas. Blood banks can also screen for T. cruzi to prevent transmission through blood transfusions.

Chagas disease is a neglected disease that affects some of the most vulnerable populations in the world. The burden of this disease falls heavily on rural communities in Latin America, where access to healthcare and resources for prevention and control are limited. However, Chagas disease is not limited to Latin America, and the global migration and travel of people from endemic regions have led to the emergence of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries, including the United States, Canada, and Europe.

The stigma associated with Chagas disease is another challenge that must be addressed. Many people with Chagas disease face discrimination and social exclusion due to the lack of awareness and understanding of the disease. Raising awareness and eliminating stigma are essential for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Chagas disease.

World Chagas Disease Day serves as a reminder of the urgent need to address this neglected disease and to promote global health equity. By working together to increase awareness, improve access to healthcare, and eliminate stigma, we can eliminate Chagas disease as a public health problem.


World Health Organization. Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites – American Trypan

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